Bones, Joints & Muscles


The skeletal system and the muscular system are responsible for providing the framework, support, and movement mechanisms of the human body. There are about 260 bones and over 620 muscles comprising these two systems, each with their specific locations and functions. Bones, joints and muscles work jointly to enable us to perform movements and retain our posture. All the organs of the body depend on this movement to resist disease. Since humans perform a lot of activity and movement, there is a need for the observance of bone and muscle health. Aging and over-activity are processes that can possibly weaken bones and muscles, but this can be prevented given the proper health habits.

The Bones in the Human Body

During the initial years we have more bones, but they unite and finally 206 number of bones are present in adults. Muscles are attached to the skeletal system, which is strong and protects the inner organs. Bones consist of minerals and cells for equilibrium and flexibility. They are largely composed of the element calcium, which makes them hard and extremely tough for protecting the body’s internal organs. Bones are active, regularly renovated with new ones till the age of thirty five; afterwards we strive to retain their strength. If the required minerals like calcium are not consumed in our diet, then these minerals which are present in the bones are taken and the bones lose their density and become fragile and brittle. Calcium can be obtained from dairy products, fish, and some vegetables. There are also calcium supplements available to provide the daily requirements for the nutrient.

Skeletal System Joints

The bones in the skeletal system are connected together at locations called joints. Joints contain fluids for protection which prevents the bones from sliding against each other. Stability to the joints are provided by surrounded muscles and ligaments.

Types of Joints

Joints can be classified according to the types of movement they can do.

Hinge Joints: knees joints and elbows joints

Ball and Socket Joints: shoulders joints,

Pivot Joints: neck joints and hip joints and

Gliding Joints: finger joints.

Joints must be worked regularly to function well and prevent joints pain. Overuse destroys the joint cartilage ligaments and tendons beyond repair.

Human Body Muscles

Muscle's Function

All the motions are provided by muscles and some movements are so silent we may not be aware of it. Muscles help in the return of blood to heart and also provide warmth to the body. Muscles make up more than half our body weight and are connected to the bones by tendons. Muscles should be put to regular use and prevent old age problems if conditioned properly.

Muscles Pain

When muscles are overused, they can feel strain. People who are active often feel sprains, cramps, and muscular pain. This can be prevented by proper warm up exercises and stretching before every activity. When muscle pain is experienced, pain relievers and topical medications are recommended for use. Protein is an important component of muscles. Foods that are excellent sources of this nutrient are fish, chicken, beef, pork, soy, and other dairy products. Protein helps the body repair itself in case of an injury, and proteins are what comprise the enzymes and hormones that regulate the processes of the body.

Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints and Remedies.

1) Certain conditions can affect the way these joints function, such as arthritis. ARTHRITIS is a disease in which joint inflammation is seen accompanied by pain and swelling. Persons with arthritis often find it difficult to move their joints, as they become swollen and stiff due to degeneration of the cartilage between them. As such, movement is hindered and to move small distances extreme pain is to be endured. . Arthritis occurring in children is called rheumatoid arthritis. Regular exercises and treatment can mitigate the suffering to an extent. Arthritis can also be remedied by pain medication and surgery.

2) FRACTURE occurs when a bone breaks. It may be due to an accident or sudden lifting of weights. The broken bone will be repaired with new cells filling the gap, but to heal quickly a plaster cast is put to keep the bone in correct alignment. Metal plates are also used to keep the bone in the correct position.

3) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY is a disease affecting the muscles, making them weak and ultimately breaks down over a period of time.

4) Osteomyelitis is a bone infection caused by bacteria. It often crops up after an injury. It usually affects the long bones of arms and legs of children.

5) When bones become weaker due to aging and lack of calcium, it can lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is prevalent predominantly in women, who lose their bone mass following menopause, making the bone brittle and the chance of a fracture occurring very high. Children with eating disorders and girl athletes are also likely to get Osteoporosis. People with this condition have brittle bones, and sometimes the bones are unable to repair themselves normally when injured. A regular balanced diet rich in calcium and structured exercises help in preventing Osteoporosis in the later stages of life.

6) Repetitive Stress Injuries occur when too much pressure on a part of a body repeatedly is applied resulting in swelling, muscle strain or tissue damage. Sportsmen playing tennis, badminton, people using computers in a particular way repeatedly and players of musical instruments are likely to get this disease.

7) Scoliosis results in people who bend their spine too much to move about freely and is traditionally hereditary in nature.

8) Tendonitis is suffered by sportspersons who tend to over stretch a muscle during play. The tendons get inflamed and severe pain is associated. Adequate rest and anti inflammatory medication helps in tiding over the problem.

Apart from the proper diet, the best way to maintain bone, joint, and muscle health is by exercising regularly. A simple walking or jogging program done a few minutes per day not only contributes to the health of the skeletal and muscular system, but also for the cardiovascular system as well. Following these health habits will keep your muscles and bones working at their peak performance for you, even as

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